While installing SharePoint Server 2013 you may encounter an installation error.
The installation will seem to go well. The prerequisites will install with no problem. Then during the setup you will see the usual progress dialog box.
Near the end of the installation the error text "Microsoft SharePoint Server 2013 encountered an error during setup." will be displayed.
Searching the setup log files will not reveal much.
The cause of the error is a dependency for SharePoint Server 2013 to run on a machine with more than one processor.
Shutdown the virtual machine and bump the number of virtual processors up to anything more than one.
Now the installation will complete successfully.